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Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

Latest publications

Anti-gender Populism in Latin America: The Cases of Mexico and Brazil
doi: 10.12924/johs2023.18020047 | Journal of Human Security | 2022 | Volume 18 | Issue 2
Edme Dominguez Reyes 1, * , Cirila Quintero Ramirez 2 and Cristina Scheibe Wolff 3
1 University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
2 The Northern Border College, Tamaulipas, Mexico
3 Federal University of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brazil
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 23 December 2023

Latin America has seen significant advances in both women’s rights and gender equality in the last three decades thanks both to external pressures (since the Beijing conference in 1995) and the strength of the women’s movements in the continent. However, these advances are being threatened by populist regimes and strong conservative and reactionary groups within civil society, especially among Catholic and Protestant churches. This kind of anti-‘gender ideology’ reactions is part of a backlash that slides in a scale from constant and structural discrimination to open reversals of gender equality previous gains. This chapter will try to illustrate how left and right-wing populism in the case of Mexico and Brazil, limit or setback gender equality gains in several areas, particularly regarding political parity and the fight against gender-based violence (GBV). We chose these two cases as we think they represent two sorts of backlashes, but also because they represent two examples of populism, different in their ideological positioning but not so different in their defence of patriarchal structures and support of family values.


Linking Norbert Elias’s concept of the triad of controls, to Andrew Willard Jones’ analysis of the ‘complete act’, the paper outlines the relation between culture and personality and the implications of this for any project of localization and the re-embedding of the economy. Re-iterating the reality that degrowth cannot be a liberal project, the paper goes on to explore the relation between Western individualism and Judeo-Christianity. Shorn of the overarching ontology and orienting architecture of Christianity, individualism has become corrosive, unstable and, in the end, self-destructive. The socially conservative preoccupation with a decline in virtue is linked to eroding social capital, anomie, and unhappiness arising from a surfeit of freedom. Hyper-social and -spatial mobility is linked to the suppression of the domain of Livelihood, with its bottom-up, communitarian and family-based forms of social regulation; and a corollary expansion of both top-down collectivist regulation by the State and the transactional logic of the Market. Livelihood is a function of embedded individuals enmeshed in relations not only with other individuals and groups, but with God. In contrast, the materialist metaphysics of Market and State both depend on disembedded, free-wheeling citizen-consumers, severed from any relation to transcendent values. But these same phenomena are also the principal drivers of consumption and ecological degradation. On this basis it is argued that any culture of ecological restraint predicated on the re-embedding of markets must also entail an ontological re-embedding of the sacred conception of the individual (the Imago Dei) into a relation with the divine. Such a project implies a very different understanding of freedom predicated on an external, legitimate authority; a freedom that is ‘fullest not when it serves itself but when it serves truths freely held” ([1], Loc. 419). Applying Christopher Alexander’s theory of pattern languages, the paper goes on to explore what such a sustainability project might look like.

Muhammad Makki 1, * and Aleena Khalid Sandhu 1
1 Centre for International Peace and Stability (CIPS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 12 December 2023
Abstract: Several studies have examined the humanitarian Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC) in post-conflict environments. However, there has been limited focus on establishing and making available an institutional setup for child welfare, which harnesses CIMIC experiences in the post-conflict rehabilitation phase. This paper aims to address this gap in the Newly Merged Districts (NMDs) of Pakistan, where the local population experienced a series of crises in the form of terrorism, subsequent military operations, and conflict-induced internal displacement, making children, in particular, extremely vulnerable. In doing so, the paper outlines the underreported vulnerabilities related to the children of NMDs and further identifies the related institutional dynamics of CIMIC in the immediate post-conflict environment. The key findings encompass the delineation of direct and indirect vulnerabilities and the identification of a lack of distinction between child welfare and protection for adequate redressal policies. Regarding the pre-existing institutional infrastructure, the study confirms the prominent role of national and international development organizations and further validates the discord between relevant government departments in providing child welfare services. Furthermore, this research argues that the Pakistan military deployed throughout the former Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) effectively utilized the pre-existing social-tribal hierarchy to provide protection and development services. The research suggests that the Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA), specifically through its Gender and Child Cell, collaborates closely with the Social Welfare Department, which is responsible for providing child protection and welfare services in the post-merger environment. The objective of this collaborative effort is to facilitate the effective and practical implementation of Child Protection Units (CPUs) in the NMDs.

Harrison Kwame Golo 1, * , Prize McApreko 2 and Lawrence Quarshie 1
1 University of Education, Winneba, Ghana
2 Department of Water Resources and Sustainable Development (DWRSD), University of Environment and Sustainable Development (UESD), Eastern Region, Ghana
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 24 October 2023
Abstract: Elections have generally been recognized as the most democratic means of establishing governments. However, whereas Ghana has seen a remarkable increase in the occurrence of elections in the post-third wave period, this democratic gain has been battered by a corresponding proliferation in the incidence of electoral-related violence in certain parts of the country before, during and after elections. This study intends to contribute to the existing literature on the intersection between democracy, electoral violence and human security in Ghana and Africa at large by exploring the effect of such violence on human security in the Odododioidio constituency in the Greater Region of Ghana. Drawing mainly on qualitative data generated through group discussions and in-depth interviews, the study revealed seven key human security concerns that are undermined by electoral violence in the study location. The paper proposes interventions that could contribute significantly to avert the situation.

Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons: Towards Sustainable Human Security
doi: 10.12924/johs2023.19010032 | Journal of Human Security | 2023 | Volume 19 | Issue 1
Intan Innayatun Soeparna
Faculty of Law, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
Publication Date: 1 October 2023
Abstract: Using descriptive and analytical legal research, this study analyses the relationship between the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) and sustainable human security. It involves critically analysing the rules on the prohibition of nuclear weapons and what has been written and argued regarding human security and sustainable human security. The findings indicate that the TPNW consists of legal obligations for all state parties to abolish nuclear weapons as a prerequisite to permanent human security. It also comprises provisions for achieving sustainable human security. Therefore, the total ban on nuclear weapons is meant to protect human security and sustain it by eliminating the factors of insecurity of human beings due to the threat of using nuclear weapons.

Gabriel Yahya Haage
McGill University, Natural Resource Sciences Department, Neotropical Concentration, Economics for the Anthropocene, Quebec, Canada
Publication Date: 1 October 2023

The Bayano region, in Panama, has been linked to many different stakeholders who were or are influenced by the Bayano dam, which was completed in 1976 and flooded a large area. Stakeholder Tables are a good way of exploring the views of stakeholders and their relationships. They can also help in identifying Hidden Stakeholders. Hidden Stakeholders refer to stakeholders who use or are impacted by regions or events, but are generally ignored. In this study, several sources, including discussions with community members and workshop results, were used to develop a Stakeholder Table for the Bayano region. Stakeholders include displaced Guna and Embera indigenous communities. In order to identify Hidden Stakeholders, the table was applied to relevant court cases and agreements, with Hidden Stakeholders being those who were not addressed in these documents. Hidden Stakeholders include indigenous individuals who raise cattle or are involved in tree felling, along with tourism industries. Using some follow-up workshops to collect potential interventions, a Relational Values approach was used to find sustainable projects and methods that can target multiple Hidden Stakeholders at the same time.


Within vivacious international relations, human rights dictums developed whilst racing to advance offensive and defensive capacities. Lately, artificial intelligence (AI) systems have been utilized in the spectrum of these advancements. This has led to a new form of arms race and human rights abuses whilst resisting any attempt to conclude a binding regulation in developing or using AI technology, and although AI has been a frontline issue in many disciplines from various angles, it nonetheless has not been as much in the legal profession, and specifically in international law.

The unprecedented AI technology changes, despite the many advantages, alarms the need to continuously explore its impact within various aspects of international law. The absence of a conclusive international threshold for AI development and use might cause hindering international relations if international law orthodoxies in humanitarian law and human rights become improperly effected. Accordingly, this paper examines whether there is a need to develop the existing international legal order, whether directly or indirectly, and suggest establishing an IGO entity with a mandate to reshape rules and embedded values in the face of a rapid AI technological advancement.

Abstract: Rooftop solar photovoltaics will play a role in decarbonizing electricity generation and meeting global climate goals. Policymakers can benefit from understanding how their policy choices impact rooftop solar PV adoption. We conduct a case study of Regina, Saskatchewan to determine the extent to which solar policy changes in that Canadian province have impacted the relative desirability of rooftop solar PV. We assess financial returns that can be achieved in Regina under three policy scenarios: net metering, net billing, and net billing with a capital incentive. We use GIS analysis to identify suitable roofs in Regina and assess any shading that may occur. We calculate hourly capacity factors for these roofs using solar irradiation data, temperature data, and shading factors. We match the simulated solar output results with hourly load data to simulate over 4 million potential roof-load combinations and calculate NPV and net monthly return for each combination. We conduct a telephone survey of 451 Regina residents to assess willingness to install solar at different levels of financial return and compare these results to our solar simulations. Our results indicate that a move from net metering to net billing reduced financial returns from rooftop solar and lowered solar potential from 129 Gigawatt-hours (GWh) per year to 99 GWh/yr in Regina. The introduction of a capital incentive grant by the federal government has helped increase solar potential upwards to 120 GWh/yr. The capital incentive grant may also help overcome high discount rates by providing a larger upfront benefit to households that install solar.


Capturing the various facets of sustainable development is the main objective of sustainability assess- ment studies. Scientists and practitioners use sustainable development criteria and indicators as instruments to link the theoretical definitions with the evaluation of the effectiveness of management strategies; therefore, identifying and selecting indicators are the most critical processes in evaluating the implementation of sustainable development strategies and progress toward achieving sustainability goals and objectives. The manuscript argues the need for increasing credibility in the identification and selection of criteria and indicators through stakeholder engagement, participation and management. Sustainability aims to primarily address and balance the [social, economic, environmental] needs and expectations of stakeholders; therefore, reaching consensus amongst the various groups of stakeholders became the determining factor in the design, implementation, and assessment of sustainable development strategies. Because a precise definition of sustainability that is universally agreed upon is yet to be introduced, the process of identifying and selecting indicators to assess progress toward achieving sustainable development is embedded in subjectivity and vagueness and can be easily manipulated to meet particular interests. Furthermore, the absence of rigorous and standardized methodological frameworks contributes to continuously proposing set indicators that best capture the notion of sustainable development which creates distrust in the assessment process and directly affects the credibility of the sustainability concept. Departing from acknowledging the relevance of stakeholders groups in decision-making and management processes, the manuscript identifies and discusses three credible and reliable frameworks designed by consensus (FDC) to identify and select criteria and indicators to assess the sustainability performance of cities and communities: (1) ISO 37130:2018 which is complemented by ISO 37122:2019, (2) United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) with focus on Goal 11, and (3) customized frameworks for sustainable cities (CFSS). To minimize subjectivity and strengthen credibility, the manuscript also makes the case for the need of embedding FDC into sustainability assessment processes to identify and select criteria and indicators. Because of the methodology adopted for their development, FDC provide scientists and practitioners with reliable and credible sources to identify and select criteria and indicators for the assessment of the sustainability performance of cities and communities.

Rehema E. Mwaipopo 1 , Abdul Jafari Shango 2, * , Philip B. Maswi 3 , Ramadhani O. Majubwa 1 and Janet F. Maro 4
1 Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
2 World Vegetable Center, Arusha, Tanzania
3 Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
4 Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania, Morogoro, Tanzania
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 19 May 2023
Abstract: In Tanzania, seed infection by bacterial leaf spot (BLS) pathogens (Xanthomonads) causes yield losses up to 45% in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.; Solanaceae family). Several studies have been conducted and wedged ecological organic agriculture (EOA) technologies (i.e., on botanicals/ biopesticides) which are significant to organic farmers in Tanzania. Nevertheless, these studies have been conducted in laboratory and screenhouse conditions, hence the technology cannot be disseminated to organic farmers for application before being validated. The current study was laid out as a 2x3 factorial experiment with five replications. Factor A was two common tomato cultivars “Rio grande” and “Malkia F1”, while factor B was seed treatment with three levels of crude plant extracts namely A. vera, C. arabica, and A. vera + C. arabica, and untreated control. Tomato seeds were soaked in the ready-made extracts for 12 hrs, then air-dried for 1 hr before sowing. The collected data were subjected to analysis of variance using Genstat 16th edition software and means were separated using Tukey’s Honest Test at (α = 0.05). The highest efficacy against the pathogen (Xanthomonas perforans) causing bacterial leaf spot (BLS) was obtained from a combination of extracts from A. vera + C. arabica hence, recommended for seed treatment. Organic tomato farmers need to adopt seed treatment practices that ensure seedlings’ start-up and enhance crop growth and productivity. Although the results of validation comply with the recommendations from previous research findings, further study is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of plant extracts subject to seasonal variability among the production areas. Also, the bioactive fractions from the plant extracts and their mechanisms of action need to be evaluated comprehensively.

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