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Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

Latest publications

Kari Margrethe Osland 1, * and Maria Gilen Røysamb 1
1 Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, Oslo, Norway
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 13 September 2022

An analysis of Community-Oriented Policing (COP) in 12 post-conflict cases suggests that while the concept of COP holds promise of representing a more sustainable approach to conventional post-conflict police reform, among our cases, there are limited examples of successful COP. Rather, our cases reveal that COP is often perceived as much as a surveillance tool to legitimise harsh policing tactics, as promoting human security or serious reforms. The more robust finding, unsurprisningly, is that the levels of trust between the police and communities, and thus the viability of COP, is closely linked to whether the police act more as a service or a force. While the principles of COP are connected to a police service, in the ideal-typical sense, the post-conflict cases we have analysed are closer to the ideal-typical police force. A number of challenges and what seem to make COP more viable across cases are identified, which should be taken into account when COP is implemented in societies where a police force is the predominiant way of policing.


Gareth Gransaull 1 , Evelyn Anita Austin 2 , Guy Brodsky 3 , Shadiya Aidid 4 and Truzaar Dordi 3, 4, 5, *
1 Richard Ivey School of Business, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
2 Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
3 School of Environment, Resources and Sustainability, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
4 Department of Health Sciences, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Canada
5 School of Environment, Enterprise and Development, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 13 September 2022
Abstract: Fossil fuel divestment has quickly become the largest divestment campaign in history, drawing attention to the large discrepancy between national climate commitments and the continued support of the fossil fuel industry. Yet, fossil fuel production and emissions continue to escalate rapidly. Our question is: what's next for the divestment movement? We propose a conceptual framework that identifies two waves of divestment leadership in which public pressure campaigns move towards targeting the extractive economic structures and predatory behaviors that permit fossil fuel extraction, and unsustainable resource extraction more generally, to continue without limit. Building on the three waves model of divestment, we postulate that a fourth wave of fossil fuel divestment organizing has already begun, one that focuses on banks, insurers, and other financiers of fossil fuel projects. Further into the future, we envision a fifth wave of divestment campaigns, whereby divestment is used in climate and environmental activists' arsenal to target firms that engage in environmentally damaging and unjust behaviors such as destructive mining activities, overconsumption, predatory debt or arbitration processes, or Indigenous rights violations. While divestment is not a panacea and does not displace the work of existing post-extractive or climate justice campaigns, we argue that divestment is a powerful tool that can be used to complement and amplify the work of environmental justice activists in other contexts beyond fossil fuels. This paper offers actionable suggestions for current and future activists and frames divestment as a tactic that will proliferate within other environmental movements in the transition towards a post-growth economy.


In this paper, I put forward an argument that sustainability science can make objectively grounded normative claims about what courses of action society should pursue in order to achieve sustainability. From a survey of the philosophy of science, social theory and sustainability science literature, I put forward an approach to justifying these normative arguments. This approach builds on the insight that social theories are value-laden and that dominant and pervasive social practices find their justification in some social theory. The approach: (i) focuses on the analysis of concrete cases; (ii) paying attention to the social practices that produce environmental problems and the theories that support those practices; (iii) examines alternative theories, and (iv) justifies a normative position by identifying the most comprehensive theoretical understanding of the particular case. Although the approach focuses on the analysis of particular cases it does not rely on value relativism. Furthermore, while the focus is on the role of science in producing normative arguments about society’s trajectory, it maintains space for the inclusion of the values of the public in environmental decision-making. However, while this approach aims to provide a rational basis to normative positions, it does not presume that this will lead to social consensus on these issues.


Abda Khalid 1, * and Ingrid Nyborg 2
1 COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad, Pakistan
2 Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norway University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 16 August 2022
Abstract: Gender based violence (GBV) is a heinous crime that Pakistani society is facing. To deal with this menace, both the government and non-governmental organizations have taken steps at various levels to improve police service delivery, competence-building and awareness-raising on GBV, establish women’s shelters, establish women’s development and welfare units in district welfare departments, and open helplines. However, these initiatives are limited, scattered and lack coordination. Our research aims to understand how the introduction of ICT might improve both competence on GBV and the coordination of the mechanisms dealing with GBV. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted in-depth interviews of relevant actors involved in the process of dealing with GBV. Our research findings show that GBV is a deeply rooted and complex structural phenomenon that requires a well-planned, well-coordinated and politically driven strategy. While ICT has the potential to improve competence of stakeholder and processes of reporting, mitigating and preventing GBV, access to technology by rural women is limited. It is therefore important that technological innovations take account of contextual constraints and opportunities.

Ingrid Nyborg 1, * , Shweta Singh 2 and Gunhild Hoogensen Gjørv 3
1 Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norway University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
2 Department of International Relations, South Asian University, Delhi, India
3 Centre for Peace Studies, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 16 August 2022
Abstract: This special gender issue brings to the fore a renewed focus on the importance of feminist intersectional analyses in understanding violence and (in)security in the everyday. It does so through the examination of several cases across the globe. The first set of articles examines how gender is understood in the context of police reform initiatives in post-conflict contexts, where despite political peace agreements, many forms of violence and insecurity continue in the everyday.  The second set of articles focuses on gender in populist movement, and particularly foregrounds an intersectional lens. The intersections of race, religion, class, caste, geographies and gender raise important questions when analyzing populist projects, including how the rise of populism may indicate a growing dissonance between the domestic and international, and how this is relevant to understanding the changing nature of violence and (in)security in this changing global era. Taken together, the two sets of articles give a rich account of the significance of incorporating a more complex understanding of gender in gaining better insight into contemporary societal processes.

John-Andrew McNeish 1, * , Arturo Matute 2 , Erika Rojas Ospina 1 and Hugo Frühling 3
1 Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
2 Department of International Development Studies, University of the Valley of Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala
3 Institute of Public Affairs, University of Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 5 July 2022
Abstract: In this article we discuss the comparative impact and significance of Community-Oriented Policing (COP) in Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua). We emphasize in particular the formal role of COP as a means to re-establish trust between the state and community, demonstrate professionalism and to evidence the democratic accountability of the police to the population. Although these formal goals remain the goal of community oriented policing, we demonstrate in this article that there has been an increased emphasis on more kinetic or militarized forms of policing in recent years. Hard handed, heavily armed and interventionist police policies have spread from El Salvador to Guatemala, and more recently Nicaragua. Moves towards more aggressive policing are explained by governments and police forces as a necessary response to the rising threat of gangs and drug cartels and horrifying levels of homicide statistics. However, as we highlight there is also evidence of these changes reflecting undemocratic shifts within national administrations and the repositioning of people within government and national institutions with links to these countries' earlier military governments.The net effect of these changes we argue is to erode the intentions of COP initiatives, and severely reduce levels of trust and accountability between people and the democratic state.

Louis Maximilian Ronalter 1, * , Camila Fabrício Poltronieri 2 , Mateus Cecilio Gerolamo 3 and Merce Bernardo 1
1 Department of Business, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
2 Production Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
3 Department of Production Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 23 June 2022
Abstract: Companies worldwide strive to become more sustainable, and, in this context, the circular economy (CE) gains importance as alternative system as opposed to the linear economy. Since executive mangers around the world work with management systems (MSs) to guide and improve organizational operations, this work aims to explore how integrated MSs (IMS) as business tools can contribute to the adoption of CE principles at the corporate level. To achieve this objective, a systematic literature review is performed, which results in a synthesis sample of 18 academic papers. The findings reveal how MSs contribute to CE adoption and, therefore, demonstrate that managers can use IMS to foster CE implementation. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of institutional intervention in the transition from a linear towards a circular designed economy. The paper contributes to academia by linking the concepts of IMS and CE, synthesizing the current academic knowledge at hand, and proposing a comprehensive research agenda that sets the path for future academic investigations. In a practical perspective, the paper contributes also to managers since it emphasizes how IMS can be used to incorporate circular business thinking into operations management.

Abstract: Investing in different futures is an existential challenge that much research within and adjacent to Ecological Economics engages with, yet organizations that recognize this social ecological imperative have few options for funding and implementing radical transformations to the needs and well-being provisioning systems that currently exist. Ecological macroeconomic ideas and EE principles of long term well being and justice on a livable planet will be explored in the context of the housing crisis in Canada, and a rural Ontario community organization attempting to find transformative solutions to the lived, local experience of this crisis. Provisioning systems for housing, when tied to real estate markets, debt money creation, land enclosures, and financialized supply chains, contribute to capital accumulation cycles; it is hardly possible to meet our housing needs, in aggregate, without also perpetuating the form of this provisioning system. The idea presented here, that of Capital Sequestration, proposes to remove capital from markets and `invests' this capital in land trusts as an intentional transformation of financial capital into social and ecological values. Through land and housing trusts as well as non-market funding pathways, Capital Sequestration is a method of investing in the transformation of provisioning systems through the sustained and collective boundary management of financial markets and incommensurable values. This practice offers significant promise as it applies ecological macroeconomic theory work, is grounded in the normative goals of and emerges from empirical research of EE, and meets a pressing need within society for imagining alternative economies.

On-farm Research to Diversify Organic Farming Systems
doi: 10.12924/of2022.08010001 | Organic Farming | 2022 | Volume 8 | Issue 1
Moritz Reckling 1, 2, * and Meike Grosse 3
1 Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Müncheberg, Germany
2 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
3 Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick, Switzerland
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 14 June 2022

Diversification of organic farming systems is a key practice to address current challenges in crop and livestock production. It has the potential to increase the resilience to climate fluctuations and counteracts climate change to some extent by reducing emissions and increasing carbon storage. Diversified crop-livestock systems can also contribute to stop the dramatic loss of biodiversity. Organic farms are already more often mixed crop-livestock farms with more diverse crop rotations, including perennial leys, compared to conventional farms [1]. However, there is a need as well as potential for further increasing diversity on organic farms [2].

Systems Dynamics Model of SDGs: A Case Study of Iran
doi: 10.12924/cis2022.10010003 | Challenges in Sustainability | 2022 | Volume 10 | Issue 1
Mojgan Chapariha
Lisbon School of Economics and Management (ISEG), University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Publication Date: 6 May 2022

This paper investigates on the implementation Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Iran. It generates a systems dynamics model for exploring possibilities for achieving four SDGs: SDG-1 (eradicating poverty), SDG-8 (economic growth and decent work), SDG-12 (sustainable production and consumption), and SDG-13 (climate action) in Iran. The model is used to generate four possible stories about the implementation of measures to achieve these SDGs in the future of the Iranian economy from 2020 to 2050: 1) the Scenario of Business as Usual continues current trends and projects them into the future, 2) the Scenario of Inclusive Growth is designed to simulate more income equality and faster economic growth, 3) the Scenario of a Steady State introduces measures to improve social, and environmental aspects while having zero economic growth, and 4) the Scenario of Well-being for People and Planet is designed to improve socio-economic and environmental aspects of the Iranian economy to achieve the four SDGs in Iran. The performance of the Iranian economy for progressing towards the SDGs is monitored through four SDG indexes which are measured based on the arithmetic mean of selected indicators for each SDG, and a Combined Index of SDGs which is measured based on the arithmetic mean of the four SDGs indexes. The results of the simulations of the SDGs model of Iran shows that the transformational scenarios (Steady State, and Well-being for People and Planet) provide better pathways in comparison to conventional scenarios (Business as Usual and Inclusive Growth) for achieving the SDGs. Moreover, this study find that transformational policy changes and extraordinary efforts are required for progress in achieving SDGs in Iran.

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