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Librello publishing house

Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

Latest publications

Caxton Gitonga Kaua 1, * , Thuita Thenya 1 and Jane Mutune Mutheu 1
1 Wangari Maathai Institute of Peace and Environmental Studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
* Corresponding author
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Publication Date: 24 February 2021

Climate variability is variation of climate elements from the longterm mean state on all spatiotemporal scales. Climate variability affects microfinance institutions directly and indirectly through physical and transition risks. However, no studies have analyzed the effects of climate variability in relation to informal microfinance institutions. The study, therefore, aimed to analyze the effects of climate variability in relation to informal microfinance institutions. It used a descriptive study design and multi-stage sampling design. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis, descriptive analysis, and Kendall’s tau-b correlation analysis. The study found a positive trend in climate variability (τb = 0.174, α>0.05). Local people are highly vulnerable to climate variability as confirmed by 98.7% of the respondents who observed that climate variability affects their livelihoods. This vulnerability stems from the effect of climate variability on access to capital assets and livelihood strategies. Vulnerability to climate variability has a significant negative effect on loan repayment performance, loan access and sustainability, and hence on informal microfinance performance (τb = - 0.109**, P<0.01). Nevertheless, climate variability increases participation in informal microfinance institutions as shown by the positive relationship with the number of people who joined informal microfinance institutions (τb = 0.239**, P<0.01) and the number formed per year (τb = 0.137, P<0.01) from 1981 to 2018. This is because informal microfinance institutions help vulnerable households in building resilience to climate variability as observed by 80.8% of the respondents.. The characteristics of informal microfinance institutions have positive or negative relationships with vulnerability to climate variability. These relationships are and could be further leveraged upon to address effects of climate variability on informal microfinance institutions. Detailed contextual analysis of informal microfinance institutions in the nexus of climate variability is thus imperative to inform actions aimed at cushioning the groups and their members against the impacts.

Shai André Divon 1, * and Arthur Owor 2
1 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
2 Centre for African Research, Gulu City, Uganda
* Corresponding author
Views 232
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Publication Date: 24 February 2021

This paper analyses the origin and evolution of the Aguu, a group of street youth/children labelled as a criminal gang operating in the streets of Gulu, Uganda. Based on a series of interviews, focus group discussions, participant observations, archival work and literature review, the paper traces the origin of the Aguu to the conflict in Northern Uganda, and describes the transformation of the Aguu from street youth/children linked to war and displacement to their present day labelling as ‘criminal gang’. Anchored in an analysis based on Assemblage Theory, this paper demonstrates the complexity, multiplicity and fluidity of the Aguu identity as a group whose inception and evolution, both internal and external, occurs through a process of relationship between social, political, economic and infrastructural changes linked to war, culture, aid and politics, affecting present day security discourses in Gulu, Uganda.

Arry Bainus 1, * , Wawan Budi Darmawan 1 , Dina Yulianti 1 and Luthfi Hamzah Husin 1
1 Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, Indonesia
* Corresponding author
Views 185
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Publication Date: 19 February 2021
Abstract: This article offers an empirical finding of human security issues in Citarum River, Indonesia, which was once labelled as the dirtiest and most polluted river in the world. Using a theoretical framework based on actor-based security model, this research seeks to analyse a local community's experience in a village affected by severe environmental degradation of its river basin and its relation to other actors in security policy making process. The article explores how a local people evaluate the ongoing environmental degradation and its impacts to their life. This analysis leads to the finding that local people are aware of the threats from their environment, but at the same time they still have to depend on the economic activities that has been polluting the river. This condition makes them unable to advocate for what they experienced to the policy makers and choose to be resilient. On the other hand, the government's policies tend to ignore the perspective of the local community in formulating a security policy. This supports previous studies that the concept of human security still has little impact on addressing environmental issues, especially at policy level.


Editorial Volume 17
doi: 10.12924/johs2021.17010001 | Journal of Human Security | 2021 | Volume 17 | Issue 1
Sabina Lautensach 1, 2, 3
1 Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Human Security, Librello, Basel, Switzerland
2 Human Security Institute, Canada
3 University of Northern British Columbia, Terrace, BC, V8G 4A2, Canada
Views 154
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Publication Date: 19 February 2021
Abstract: A retrospective on the year 2020 suggests that the CoViD-19 pandemic can and should be interpreted as a multidimensional learning opportunity.

Stanislaw Jarmoszko
Department of Social Sciences, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland
Views 390
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Publication Date: 18 December 2020

The article outlines the substantial frames of the anthropology of security as an independent anthropological (humanistic) sub-discipline and the anthropological approach to security. The multidisci- plinary character of sources of the anthropological knowledge makes the anthropology of security a field of integration of biological and socio-humanistic facets of the knowledge of security aspects. The focus of the discipline is the entirety of human dispositions and accomplishments in the creation of the conditions for safe and satisfying existence, development and survival of both individuals and communities. Security, as well as the norms and patterns of human actions (i.e. cultural patterns of security) serving security creation, become the supreme category. Hence, the anthropology of security concentrates on the individual and collective natural protective and defensive dispositions (properties). Thus its attention focuses on creating technologies of security and the wholeness of the human artefacts stemming from their applications. In the anthropological perspective, security appears a sphere of creation and—simultaneously—its ultimate result. Therefore, it is more than a condition/process (a mere prelude to analyses). It is an intentionally created construction of human thought and an entity of practical activities. The presented reflections are only a broad, overall outline in both diachronic and synchronic areas. The aim of the article is to specify and promote an integrative approach in understanding the essence and structuring of the anthropology of security.

Plagues, Pandemics, Health Security, and the War on Nature
doi: 10.12924/johs2020.16010053 | Journal of Human Security | 2020 | Volume 16 | Issue 1
Colin David Butler
The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
Views 6380
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Publication Date: 18 December 2020

This editorial presents a brief review of pandemics from antiquity to COVID-19. Although all large-scale epidemic diseases ("pandemics") can be considered ecological "checks" on human population size, and although COVID-19 is the biggest such pandemic since HIV/AIDS emerged it is not likely to approach the deathtoll of earlier pandemics, such as the plague. There are two major hypotheses to explain the origin of COVID-19. One is the "natural origin" hypothesis, the other is that it might have escaped from a laboratory, with its origin subsequently hidden. Although most scientists support the natural origin idea the other cannot yet be dismissed. Evidence for each hypothesis is presented. If the first theory is correct then it is a powerful warning, from nature, that our species is running a great risk. If the second theory is proven then it should be considered an equally powerful, indeed frightening, signal that we are in danger, from hubris as much as from ignorance. More pandemics are inevitable, but their severity can be reduced by greater transparency, international co-operation, and retreat from planetary boundaries.

Abstract: This study aims to identify insecurities among youth in Kosovo, constituting the largest age group. Some of the identified insecurities and respective resolutions are related to the role of and attitudes toward police in Kosovo, who are the main formal security provider in Kosovo. This is addressed in the first part of the article. The second part addresses these attitudes toward police, analysing youth perspectives on performance, procedural justice and distributive justice. Primary data from semi-structured focus group discussions with Kosovar youth are used for the analyses. Five key types of insecurities were identified: (1) job-related (unemployment), (2) drug-related, (3) school-related, (4) physical and (5) inequality-related. Results also show that attitudes toward police are predominantly poor and seem to stem mainly from a performance perspective, followed by a procedural justice perspective.

Environmental Conflicts, Migration and Governance
doi: 10.12924/johs2020.16010051 | Journal of Human Security | 2020 | Volume 16 | Issue 1
Paul Bellamy
New Zealand Parliamentary Service, Parliament, Wellington
Views 461
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Publication Date: 24 November 2020
Abstract: Ultimately, the editors and contributors achieve their goal of making an important contribution to the subject area. They illuminate various aspects of the interdependencies between migration, environmental and resource conflicts, along with the development and roles of national, regional and global migration governance regimes. Added value is provided by chapters including extensive and helpful bibliographies, identifying areas requiring more research, and often displaying illustrative figures and tables. Environmental Conflicts, Migration and Governance is a well-researched and written book. It is founded on a perceptive analysis of an important topic that warrants discussion, and will become increasingly important in the forthcoming years.

Ecological Security of Communities in Polish Cities
doi: 10.12924/johs2020.16010041 | Journal of Human Security | 2020 | Volume 16 | Issue 1
Radosław Korneć
Department of Social Sciences, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland
Views 536
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Publication Date: 10 November 2020
Abstract: Compared to issues related to the economy, politics, social or military concerns, attempts to preserve ecology and the natural environment have a relatively short history. Anthropogenic environmental changes in many cases have a direct impact on one's quality of life and the functioning of urban centers, states and communities. Pressure exerted by human economic activity on the environment is demonstrated, above all, by reductions in air, water, and soil quality, worse acoustic climate, and limited access to green spaces. The most detrimental undertakings have a negative impact on the level of ecological security in cities are transport, domestic heating of buildings, industrial activities, and heating processes. The main goal of this paper is to identify the perception of the ecological security of the residents of the biggest urban centers. Urban environment security is a very broad issue. It covers both natural phenomena, where human impact is minimal, levels of urban sustainable development and attitudes of the city dwellers. Recently, citizen awareness of the importance of environmental challenges in Polish cities’ development has surged, including awareness of the desire to live in a cleaner environment and to breathe clean air. The topic is more and more often discussed in public debate, above all during periods of peak contaminant concentrations. The situation serves as a stimulus for citizens to mobilize, often through various social movements while local governments take actions oriented at changing methods of domestic heating, more eco-friendly mobility and the enhanced environmental education of society.

Oliver Gerald Schrot 1, * , Hanna Krimm 2 and Thomas Schinko 3
1 Faculty of Geo- and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Geography, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
2 alpS GmbH, Innsbruck, Austria
3 Risk and Resilience Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
* Corresponding author
Views 896
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Publication Date: 19 October 2020
Abstract: Human influences on Earth's natural systems are accelerating, with anthropogenic climate and global change posing existential risks for mankind. To overcome the policy implementation gap in practice both collective and transformative actions for sustainability involving science, policy and society are urgently needed. In the realms of science, this relates to taking inter-and transdisciplinary research approaches to foster exchange and co-designing policy options between researcher, decision-makers and other societal stakeholders; however, such collaboration is often limited by time, funding and complexity constrains.
This paper recognises that particularly early career climate change and sustainability researchers are exposed to both the claim for and practical challenges of inter- and transdisciplinarity. For a first qualitative investigation of Austrian early career researchers’ preparedness for conducting participatory research with societal stakeholders, this study examines perspectives of twelve early career researchers participating in a young scientists' workshop.
Using a pre-post survey and analysing data by content, our findings indicate that workshop participants have to manage stakeholder processes directly after graduation and, due to a lack of methodological training, only use a small fraction of existing social science methods and participatory settings for stakeholder collaboration. To support other early career researchers and future students in Austria in developing strong inter-and transdisciplinary research skills, we highlight the added-value of integrating hands-on workshops with societal stakeholders, regular exchange of lessons learned and transdisciplinary lectures into university education. Offering more practice-oriented transdisciplinary learning activities during undergraduate education, like excursions and mini-projects in which students can develop and train participatory methods together with stakeholders under guidance, is believed to be a fruitful strategy in this context.

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