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Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

Latest publications

Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons: Towards Sustainable Human Security
doi: 10.12924/johs2023.19010032 | Journal of Human Security | 2023 | Volume 19 | Issue 1
Intan Innayatun Soeparna
Faculty of Law, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
Publication Date: 1 October 2023
Abstract: Using descriptive and analytical legal research, this study analyses the relationship between the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) and sustainable human security. It involves critically analysing the rules on the prohibition of nuclear weapons and what has been written and argued regarding human security and sustainable human security. The findings indicate that the TPNW consists of legal obligations for all state parties to abolish nuclear weapons as a prerequisite to permanent human security. It also comprises provisions for achieving sustainable human security. Therefore, the total ban on nuclear weapons is meant to protect human security and sustain it by eliminating the factors of insecurity of human beings due to the threat of using nuclear weapons.


The Bayano region, in Panama, has been linked to many different stakeholders who were or are influenced by the Bayano dam, which was completed in 1976 and flooded a large area. Stakeholder Tables are a good way of exploring the views of stakeholders and their relationships. They can also help in identifying Hidden Stakeholders. Hidden Stakeholders refer to stakeholders who use or are impacted by regions or events, but are generally ignored. In this study, several sources, including discussions with community members and workshop results, were used to develop a Stakeholder Table for the Bayano region. Stakeholders include displaced Guna and Embera indigenous communities. In order to identify Hidden Stakeholders, the table was applied to relevant court cases and agreements, with Hidden Stakeholders being those who were not addressed in these documents. Hidden Stakeholders include indigenous individuals who raise cattle or are involved in tree felling, along with tourism industries. Using some follow-up workshops to collect potential interventions, a Relational Values approach was used to find sustainable projects and methods that can target multiple Hidden Stakeholders at the same time.


Within vivacious international relations, human rights dictums developed whilst racing to advance offensive and defensive capacities. Lately, artificial intelligence (AI) systems have been utilized in the spectrum of these advancements. This has led to a new form of arms race and human rights abuses whilst resisting any attempt to conclude a binding regulation in developing or using AI technology, and although AI has been a frontline issue in many disciplines from various angles, it nonetheless has not been as much in the legal profession, and specifically in international law.

The unprecedented AI technology changes, despite the many advantages, alarms the need to continuously explore its impact within various aspects of international law. The absence of a conclusive international threshold for AI development and use might cause hindering international relations if international law orthodoxies in humanitarian law and human rights become improperly effected. Accordingly, this paper examines whether there is a need to develop the existing international legal order, whether directly or indirectly, and suggest establishing an IGO entity with a mandate to reshape rules and embedded values in the face of a rapid AI technological advancement.

Abstract: Rooftop solar photovoltaics will play a role in decarbonizing electricity generation and meeting global climate goals. Policymakers can benefit from understanding how their policy choices impact rooftop solar PV adoption. We conduct a case study of Regina, Saskatchewan to determine the extent to which solar policy changes in that Canadian province have impacted the relative desirability of rooftop solar PV. We assess financial returns that can be achieved in Regina under three policy scenarios: net metering, net billing, and net billing with a capital incentive. We use GIS analysis to identify suitable roofs in Regina and assess any shading that may occur. We calculate hourly capacity factors for these roofs using solar irradiation data, temperature data, and shading factors. We match the simulated solar output results with hourly load data to simulate over 4 million potential roof-load combinations and calculate NPV and net monthly return for each combination. We conduct a telephone survey of 451 Regina residents to assess willingness to install solar at different levels of financial return and compare these results to our solar simulations. Our results indicate that a move from net metering to net billing reduced financial returns from rooftop solar and lowered solar potential from 129 Gigawatt-hours (GWh) per year to 99 GWh/yr in Regina. The introduction of a capital incentive grant by the federal government has helped increase solar potential upwards to 120 GWh/yr. The capital incentive grant may also help overcome high discount rates by providing a larger upfront benefit to households that install solar.


Capturing the various facets of sustainable development is the main objective of sustainability assess- ment studies. Scientists and practitioners use sustainable development criteria and indicators as instruments to link the theoretical definitions with the evaluation of the effectiveness of management strategies; therefore, identifying and selecting indicators are the most critical processes in evaluating the implementation of sustainable development strategies and progress toward achieving sustainability goals and objectives. The manuscript argues the need for increasing credibility in the identification and selection of criteria and indicators through stakeholder engagement, participation and management. Sustainability aims to primarily address and balance the [social, economic, environmental] needs and expectations of stakeholders; therefore, reaching consensus amongst the various groups of stakeholders became the determining factor in the design, implementation, and assessment of sustainable development strategies. Because a precise definition of sustainability that is universally agreed upon is yet to be introduced, the process of identifying and selecting indicators to assess progress toward achieving sustainable development is embedded in subjectivity and vagueness and can be easily manipulated to meet particular interests. Furthermore, the absence of rigorous and standardized methodological frameworks contributes to continuously proposing set indicators that best capture the notion of sustainable development which creates distrust in the assessment process and directly affects the credibility of the sustainability concept. Departing from acknowledging the relevance of stakeholders groups in decision-making and management processes, the manuscript identifies and discusses three credible and reliable frameworks designed by consensus (FDC) to identify and select criteria and indicators to assess the sustainability performance of cities and communities: (1) ISO 37130:2018 which is complemented by ISO 37122:2019, (2) United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) with focus on Goal 11, and (3) customized frameworks for sustainable cities (CFSS). To minimize subjectivity and strengthen credibility, the manuscript also makes the case for the need of embedding FDC into sustainability assessment processes to identify and select criteria and indicators. Because of the methodology adopted for their development, FDC provide scientists and practitioners with reliable and credible sources to identify and select criteria and indicators for the assessment of the sustainability performance of cities and communities.

Rehema E. Mwaipopo 1 , Abdul Jafari Shango 2, * , Philip B. Maswi 3 , Ramadhani O. Majubwa 1 and Janet F. Maro 4
1 Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
2 World Vegetable Center, Arusha, Tanzania
3 Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
4 Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania, Morogoro, Tanzania
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 19 May 2023
Abstract: In Tanzania, seed infection by bacterial leaf spot (BLS) pathogens (Xanthomonads) causes yield losses up to 45% in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.; Solanaceae family). Several studies have been conducted and wedged ecological organic agriculture (EOA) technologies (i.e., on botanicals/ biopesticides) which are significant to organic farmers in Tanzania. Nevertheless, these studies have been conducted in laboratory and screenhouse conditions, hence the technology cannot be disseminated to organic farmers for application before being validated. The current study was laid out as a 2x3 factorial experiment with five replications. Factor A was two common tomato cultivars “Rio grande” and “Malkia F1”, while factor B was seed treatment with three levels of crude plant extracts namely A. vera, C. arabica, and A. vera + C. arabica, and untreated control. Tomato seeds were soaked in the ready-made extracts for 12 hrs, then air-dried for 1 hr before sowing. The collected data were subjected to analysis of variance using Genstat 16th edition software and means were separated using Tukey’s Honest Test at (α = 0.05). The highest efficacy against the pathogen (Xanthomonas perforans) causing bacterial leaf spot (BLS) was obtained from a combination of extracts from A. vera + C. arabica hence, recommended for seed treatment. Organic tomato farmers need to adopt seed treatment practices that ensure seedlings’ start-up and enhance crop growth and productivity. Although the results of validation comply with the recommendations from previous research findings, further study is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of plant extracts subject to seasonal variability among the production areas. Also, the bioactive fractions from the plant extracts and their mechanisms of action need to be evaluated comprehensively.

Michał Czuba 1, * and Rafał Muster 2
1 Institute of Political Sciences of the University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Silesia, Poland
2 Institute of Sociology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Silesia, Poland
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 2 May 2023

The precariat is a new social category that exists in all countries around the world and consists of people who work in the gig economy and/or are employed under civil law contracts. One of the key factors that determines membership of the precariat is the uncertainty felt by individuals in the labour market as a result of, inter alia, being employed on flexible forms. The research aim of this article is to define the specificity of the Polish precariat and their sense of social security in the context of the current employment support and social policy of the Polish government. The utilitarian goal is to evaluate the “Polish Deal” programme currently proposed by the Polish government in terms of its strengths and weaknesses in order to reduce the precariat phenomenon and boost the Polish precariat’s sense of social security. The article also attempts to demonstrate the effects of actions taken by the Polish government since 2015, which were aimed at improving the situation on the precariat labour market.

In order to determine the extent to which the current government in Poland affects the social security of the precariat and satisfies their needs by taking social welfare action and implementing indirect operations related to education, a questionnaire was used, conducted via the Internet, involving a survey panel of respondents. In this study, a stratified-quota sample selection was used, corresponding to the proportions of people working on the basis of various flexible forms of fixed-term employment and self-employment.

One thousand respondents employed on flexible terms participated in the study. The study was carried out at the turn of March/April 2021.



This manuscript presents an analysis of commercially developed appraisal instruments (CDAIs) using composite indices to assess, compare and rank the sustainability performance of cities and communities. A group of CDAIs using composite indices are commonly used to assess, compare, and rank the sustainability performance of cities and communities. As a sustainability assessment methodology, composite indices gather qualitative and quantitative information which is then used to calculate the overall performance of the principle (e.g., sustainability); the stand-alone number, commonly known as an index, is often used to compare and rank performance. Because of practicality and mistakenly perceived simplicity, the assessment methodology is often misunderstood and underestimated. Issues, skepticism, and criticism surrounding composite indices are rooted in the lack of structured and transparent methodological frameworks for the identification and selection of elements within each hierarchical level. Although scientifically-based methodologies and processes have been developed to assign relevance (i.e., weighting) and aggregate performance to calculate the stand-alone index, the effectiveness of the assessment methodology (i.e., composite indices) is still influenced by various degrees and types of subjectivity and uncertainty. To evaluate their effectiveness, the manuscript discusses three characteristics of CDAIs using composite indices: (1) the hierarchical structural organization (HSO) considers the aim of each hierarchical level in the assessment process, (2) the identification, selection and design of the elements (e.g., principle, sub-principles, criteria, indicators) included in each hierarchical level as a determinant factor in capturing the various facets of the sustainable development notion, and (3) the quantification methodology (i.e., weighting and aggregation system [W&AS]) implemented by the developer or proponent of the assessment tool. The analysis of CDAIs using composite indices effectiveness is partially assisted by three frameworks designed by consensus (FDC): (1) ISO 37130:2018 Sustainable development of communities—Indicators for city services and quality of life which is complemented with ISO 37122:2019 Sustainable cities and communities—Indicators for smart cities and ISO 37123:2019 Sustainable cities and communities—Indicators for resilient cities, (2) United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) with emphasis on Goal 11, and (3) customized frameworks for sustainable cities (CFSS) with a focus on sustainability plans designed and implemented by the cities of Vancouver and Montreal which are used as case studies. While the findings support the applicability and usefulness of CDAIs using composite indices as assessment methodology, the appropriateness of comparing and ranking the sustainability performance of cities and communities is an unsettled debate with several areas for improvement and future research.


Over the last five years, violent non-state actors have acquired armed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and have been using them extensively. This paper presents the main non-state actors involved and the areas in which they have used this tool, as well as how UAVs are used and procured. To date, armed UAVs have mainly been used by non-state actors in the Middle East and Central Asia. They have also been used in the conflict zones of Ukraine, Myanmar, Mexico, and Ecuador. While this is worrisome, limited evidence suggests that violent non-state actors use armed UAVs intentionally in areas where mostly civilians are present. The paper details the state of UAV usage by non-state actors and develops a thesis of cyclic adaptation between state and non-state actors. Not only do non-state actors learn from state actors, so does state and state-backed actors learn from non-state actors in conflict zones.

This process have been visible on the battlefield in Ukraine, where state-backed actors on both sides have incorporated smaller consumer style UAVs into their repertoire. As the use of armed UAVs developed substantially following Hezbollah’s early UAV operations in 2004 and spread to many regions of the world, the adaptation of non-state cleverness and ingenuity can be harnessed by state actors in times of poor or limited access to weaponry and support systems.

Dilip Nandwani 1, * and Kripa Dhakal 1
1 Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science, College of Agriculture, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN, USA
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 16 December 2022
Abstract: Several scientific reports indicate lower as well as higher relative yield stability in organic and conventional (chemical) agriculture systems.   This study present results of on-farm trials conducted on leafy vegetables grown in in organic and conventional management systems. Four leafy vegetables collard green (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala), kale (Brassica oleracea cv. sabellica), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. cv. cicla) were grown in organic and conventionally managed plots in the spring 2018 and 2020. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Organic Program (NOP) standards were followed for cultural and management practices in organically managed experimental field plots. Synthetic chemical inputs (seeds and fertilizer) were applied in the experimental field plots managed in conventional production system. Data on plant height, leaf number and total fresh weight of leafy vegetables were measured at the end of the experiment. Results showed that maximum fresh weight per plant was obtained from conventionally grown kale and the lowest was recorded in conventionally grown lettuce. The fresh weight of collard (344.1 g/plant) and kale (475.6 g/plant) was significantly higher in conventional system relative to the organic management system in collar (184.9 g/plant) and kale (242.3 g/plant). In contrast, for lettuce, significantly greater fresh weight was obtained in the organic (266.5 g/plant) compared to conventional (189.3 g/plant). No difference recorded in fresh weight of swiss chard grown in organic (222.0 g/plant) and conventional (263.7 g/plant) production systems. No difference observed in plant height and number of leaf count between the two production systems. Findings suggest that growth and yield responses in organic and conventional production systems can vary with the individual crop species. Results presented could be helpful to growers in planning for the organic production of leafy greens vegetables.

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